been and are currently being investigated as means of /StructParents 7 /XObject << The electrochemical deposition of metals on foreign substrates is a complex process which includes a number of phase formation phenomena. �I�r,�m���\�0�Z�`R�]��i�U��}��7�ʡ2���k�>->�.���溫�����k��}����q�U��Tʒ%�R�,O,bPä'���(��({���ܧ�+:#M=�֚m���W�>�EW�ӕ���� ��>�;� �i 19 0 obj ion scattering, Auger spectroscopy, and ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis), which probe 1, 5, or even 20 monolayers, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) that probes as deep as 1–50μm into a bulk material. 11 0 obj 22 0 obj We have found that the second principal maximum in ε2 for ordered Cu3Au is located at 3.28 eV, in contrast to 3.6 eV in the earlier measurements of Nilsson and Norris. Using IR irradiation, researchers have demonstrated that 0000006166 00000 n /C2_1 41 0 R /Parent 3 0 R /Im7 61 0 R Edges at ℏω=0.9 eV and ℏω=1.7 eV are interpreted in terms of impurity density-of-states peaks 0.8 and 1.7 eV below EF. <> >> >> 2 0 obj DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.10.1. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1Up�W� Semantic Scholar is a free, AI-powered research tool for scientific literature, based at the Allen Institute for AI. The Fermi surface is presented and is found to originate mainly in copper 4s and 4p states. Temperature and scale dependent properties were determined by studying electrical conductivity and optical properties. /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 841.92] This differential technique is highly sensitive and provides spectroscopic data of materials, particularly of explosives. The computed radii of contact for the two cases are close to the measured values. >> Short-range ordering decreases the energy of one of the peaks in the differential reflectograms by 0.04 eV. endobj >> endobj stream D:20130715074535 0000029778 00000 n It is shown that the dissolution curve of the grown film is useful in characterization of the film rather than the anodization curve. << which is capable of detecting explosive materials on surfaces such as luggage, shoes, garments, containers, parcels, etc. The experimental results presented include the corrosion of various metals such as copper, the passivation of nickel and nickel-copper alloys in aqueous environments, and the dezincification of alpha-brass. In Cu-Zn and Cu-Al alloys three main absorption peaks were identified that were associated with the Δ5 → Δ1, X5 → X4' and L2' → L1sitions. /CropBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 841.92] An extra peak in the density of states located at 3.4 eV above the Fermi level and present only in the ordered phase has been observed. Equipe de Recherche Associée au C.N.R.S., No 462. stream 14 0 obj The dezincification behavior of red brass differed both in degree and kind from that observed in yellow brasses. Die berechnete Linienform stimmt bemerkenswert gut mit den experimentellen Modulationsspektren von Kupfer–Aluminium-Legierungen im Bereich der fundamentalen Absorptionskante überein. readily detected. It was found that the Δ5→ Δ1transition increases slightly in energy with increasing Zn or Al concentration. >> >> Free corrosion in air for one day yielded differential reflectograms characteristic of mixed oxides of Cu2O and CuO. endstream 0000007849 00000 n endobj We find several structural elements above the absorption edge as well as in the infrared. Download as PDF. 0000187018 00000 n Es zeigt sich, daß Kupfer–Kobalt, genauso wie Kupfer–Nickel und Kupfer–Gold eine „virtual bound state”-Legierung ist. Based on these results we also present a reinterpretation of our previous NiCu data. 0000224642 00000 n 166 0 R 167 0 R 168 0 R 169 0 R 170 0 R 171 0 R 172 0 R 173 0 R 174 0 R 175 0 R This work resolves controversies about these energy gaps in Ag and Au. The DR structure caused by interband transitions and designated as E1 and E1 + δ1 were found to shift in energy with increasing ion beam energy or with sputter damage. /StructParents 2 /TT1 34 0 R � ��� /Type /Page Two different oxides could be identified which were formed during immersion of the samples in an electrolyte while applying various potentials to them. <> These so-called coefficients of absorption and scattering are generally taken to be properties of the irradiated layer, assumed to be a con-tinuum, and are experimentally accessible. /Contents 24 0 R>> << It is shown how oscillator strengths can be obtained throughout the Brillouin zone to an accuracy of about 20%. /Contents 20 0 R>> Differential reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a surface analytical technique. Numerous attempts have been made over the years to improve the corrosion resistance of silver and the reflectivity of aluminium by using alloying techniques. Solid phase epitaxial regrowth (SPER) of amorphous silicon on a crystalline silicon substrate has been intensively studied in the past by applying predominantly Rutherford backscattering and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 841.92] limits in the tens to hundreds of ppb (by weight) range. The differential reflectogram of a short-range ordered versus a disordered specimen shows a pronounced peak at 2.64 eV and a shoulder around 5 eV which is attributed to new structure in the ordered state. /CS1 [/ICCBased 45 0 R] <> %PDF-1.5 These transitional energies are identical for both alloys in the entire α-phase region. null null 249 0 R null null null 250 0 R null null null 10 0 obj For 5 0 obj 0000015472 00000 n 0000002735 00000 n :*�.�8����W\��77Gw����?m���{�{Ϸ�۲�zH�a{�'>�lqyպ�����m���Ck���ڶ�u9y�3�Gͨ����h���C2�&� e'�����dG���3\�.�Z\��;[�8. /Length 3873 A study of the optical absorption of Ni-based dilute alloys (NiCo, NiFe, NiV, NiTi) by a sensitive differential technique is presented. 238 0 R null null null null null 239 0 R null 240 0 R 169 0 R The calculated line shape reproduces remarkably well the experimental modulation spectra of copper based alloys in the vicinity of the fundamental absorption edge. The experiment is analyzed for the difference in the optical conductivity between the alloy and pure Ni. In the present case one part has been damaged by Ar+ ions with energies ranging from 500 to 5000 eV. /F3 21 0 R The average-t-matrix approximation (ATA) is used to evaluate complex energy bands in the disordered alloy α-CuZn over a range of Zn concentrations between 0 and 30 at.%. endobj It was found that the conduction bands are displaced to lower energies, the L2′-L1 gap across the {111} faces of the zone is reduced by 1.3 eV at 30% Zn, and the Fermi surface approaches the {200} faces of the zone. 90 0 obj <> endobj The smoothed spectrum is in good agreement with the experimental spectrum above 4 eV. occurs in the first 10–20 nm. >> Cu-21.4% Zn alloys (yellow brass) showed dezincification in less than one hour potentiostating time at pH ∼4 and minus 105 mVSHE (minus 350 mVSCE). The experiment is analyzed for the difference in the optical conductivity between the alloy and pure Ni. /MediaBox [0 0 595 842] /Resources << /Contents 39 0 R Experimental evidence is given which suggests that both the d bands and the Fermi energy are raised by alloying. 0 51 0 R] endobj Although in the composition range investigated the equilibrium condition is a short-rangeordered structure, the nearest-neighbor configurations bear a marked resemblance to the long-period antiphase-shift structures which have been found in alloys with more AI. stream /Contents 6 0 R>> trailer 7 0 obj We have investigated the band structure of alpha brass (α-CuZn) as a function of its composition, over a range of 5 to 30% Zn, by steps of 5%. insight into the nature of the solid state. >> 23 0 obj 0000006216 00000 n /C2_1 40 0 R /Rotate 0 >> null 98 0 R 99 0 R] /CS0 [/ICCBased 33 0 R] 1.?3, when the binding energy between the depositing M-adatoms and the substrate atoms exceeds that between the atoms of the deposited metal, low dimensional iD metal phases (i?=?0, 1 and 2) are formed onto the foreign metal substrate. 1 52 0 R] 0000030576 00000 n /Font << spectrometry is capable of LODs for detecting vaporphase endstream /Font << /Contents 10 0 R>>

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